It may be a broadband phenomenon or more narrowly tuned. In analog communication, even a small amount of EMI can cause an unacceptable amount of noise in the signal. Low-level EMI has little effect on digital transmission, where the distinction between 0 and 1 is not obliterated. But as noise increases, the bit error rate rises. At a certain point, there is an abrupt cliff effect and the consequences can range from trivial to catastrophic. Harmful EMI emissions can be mitigated by modifying the offending electrical The makeup of a typical resistive spark plug.
The scope soon expanded. Provisions were introduced requiring electronic devices to incorporate defensive measures designed to make them immune to EMI from outside and inside sources. These measures were largely successful even as the potential for EMI increased rapidly in an ever more crowded electrical environment. The U. Now, compliance with applicable EMI regulations must be assured for all new products.
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Compliance testing generally takes place on a prototype prior to production. The problem confronting manufacturers is that compliance testing is enormously expensive. An IEC-certified organization will perform EMI emission compliance testing in a carefully engineered environment to ensure that incidental EMI unrelated to the device under test will not enter the picture. A test of this sort will have a price tag of thousands if not tens of thousands of dollars, depending upon the complexity of the product.
What accounts in part for the high cost to the manufacturer is the fact that the compliance testing organization has tremendous liability exposure. This is the rationale for pre-compliance testing, usually conducted in house by manufacturer personnel. Typically, in-house pre-compliance testing makes use of field-fabricated ground planes placed strategically around the test setup.
Moreover, in-house pre-compliance testing makes use of ordinary oscilloscopes and spectrum analyzers rather than the far more expensive EMI receiver that professional compliance testing organizations use. Typical near-field probes.
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Within a given chassis, every wire, terminal, trace, semiconductor and conductive metal part becomes an antenna that may aggressively radiate EMI. Microprocessors in certain circumstances become prodigious electromagnetic factories. To comply with EMI standards, design engineers are obliged to contain or otherwise minimize these electromagnetic storms so that, conforming to various inverse propagation laws, they do not overwhelm the analog and digital information streams that have become so much part of our lives.
Then there is conducted EMI, which requires a different set of solutions. To deal with radiated EMI, its source first must be located. Then the field must be mapped and quantified so if it rises higher than an acceptable level, it can be reduced if not eliminated. The test procedure for EMI pre-compliance testing is to locate the open chassis of the equipment to be tested in a tent that is set up in an open field or on a lab bench with ground planes in place.
The equipment should be powered up and checked for EMI emission immediately and continuously during a half-hour or more warm-up period, the exact amount of time depending on the ambient temperature and nature of the equipment. An anechoic chamber is a room designed to completely absorb reflections of electromagnetic waves for testing purposes. They are also insulated from exterior sources of EM noise.
The near-field probe has a small downside: It perturbs the field that it intends to measure. Felder, Ronald W. Pauline M. Fibre Optic Communication Technology. Course Content : Introduction: Motivation for optical networks, Link requirements, throughputs, distance-bandwidth product Simple Link Design: Modes in optical fibers, losses and attenuation. Digital Transmission Basics: A simple synchronous TDM, timing inaccuracies, timing issues in practical digital links, master-slave and independent timing architectures, slips, elastic stores and asynchronous multiplexing.
DS2 frame structure and asynchronous multiplexing. Text Books : 1. Rajiv Ramaswamy, Kumar N.
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Reference Books : 1. Introduction to Electrical Engineering. Semiconductor devices and their applications - Analog and digital systems — Methods of electrical communication — telephony — radio — television — computers and communications. Working Principles of some simple electrical gadgets such as radio — television, computer, mixie, mobile phone, etc.
Basic electronics, Tata McGraw Hill. Basic Electrical Engineering. Course Content : 1. Single phase AC, voltage and current phasors, impedance, network theorems application to AC, frequency response of ac circuits, resonance, filters, active power, reactive power, apparent power, power factor. Balanced Three phase AC, three phase power, star and delta connection. Single phase transformer: Principle of operation, equivalent circuit, OC and SC test, voltage regulation, efficiency.
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Three phase Induction motor: Construction, rotating magnetic field, principle of operation, slip, torque, equivalent circuit, efficiency. DC machines: Principle of operation, excitation, equivalent circuit, emf, speed and torque characteristics. Diodes and applications: Diode characteristics, voltage and current relationship, diode circuits-rectifiers, peak and envelop detectors, solar cell.
Operational amplifiers: Description of amplifiers as a black box and definition of gain, effect of feedback on gain, Operational amplifier circuits: Non-inverting, inverting, summing, differential, integrators, differentiators, buffers.
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Signals and Systems. Understand and apply the concepts about linear time-invariant LTI systems 2. Signals continuous-time : Signal classification analog-digital, energy-power, even-odd, periodic-aperiodic, deterministic-random etc. Systems continuous-time : System classification memory, causal, stable, linear, time-invariant, invertible etc. Discrete-time signals and systems: Emphasize similarities and differences with continuous-time counterpart 3 classes 4.
Continuous-time Fourier series: Periodic signals and their properties, exponential and trigonometric FS representation of periodic signals, convergence, FS of standard periodic signals, salient properties of Fourier series, FS and LTI systems, some applications of FS eg. Continuous-time Fourier transform: Development of Fourier representation of aperiodic signals, convergence, FT of standard signals, FT of periodic signals, properties of FT, some applications of FT eg. Laplace Transform: Bilateral Laplace transform, region of convergence, properties of Laplace transform, standard Laplace transform pairs, transfer function of LTI system, characterising LTI system properties from transfer function, algebra of transfer functions and block diagram representations, Unilateral Laplace transform — brief introduction and application to simple initial value problems 8 classes 7.
Sampling Bridge continuous and discrete : Sampling theorem and signal reconstruction, notion of aliasing with examples, Sampling in frequency domain 5 classes Text Books : Signals and Systems: Oppenheim, Willsky and Nawab 2nd Edn. Lathi 2nd Edn. Introduction to Programming. The objective is to provide a basic introduction to programming through C language. Course Content : Course Contents: 1.
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